Sûrah “Â 'Lay Imrân/The Amramites” – The Family of Imrân
In this Sûrah “Â 'Lay Imrân” has been mentioned at one place -- symbolically it has been named after it.
The Period of Revelation and Theme:
This Sûrah contains four speeches:
1st speech starts from the beginning of the Sûrah and ends on the first two Ayâts of 4th Rakuh (vv. 1-32) -- most likely, it has been revealed soon after the Battle of Badr.
2nd speech starts from the Ayât (Allâh subhaana wa ta’aala had chosen Adam, Nûh, the family of Ibrâhim and the family of 'Imrân (for HIS Prophethood) preferring them above all the people of the worlds ('Alamîn), vv. 33-63) and ends with the completion of 6th Rakuh. It was revealed in 9 Hijri – at the arrival of a delegation from Najran.
3rd speech starts from the beginning of 7th Rakuh and ends at the completion of 12th Rakuh (vv. 64-120). Its period looks like related to the first speech.
4th speech starts from 13th Rakuh and ends at the completion of this Sûrah (vv. 121-200). It has been revealed after the Battle of Uhud.
Address and Topic of discussion:
This is the core of the subject and the similarity of the main theme that makes continues lecture-- combining all these different speeches. The address of this Sûrah is especially towards the following two groups:
o The people of the Book (the Jews and the Christians),
o Those people who brought Faith in Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (Muslims).
The first group has been preached further in the same way that had started in Sûrah Al-Baqarah. Warning them on their false beliefs and ruined morals -- it has been told to them that this Rasool and this Al-Qur'ân is inviting to the same Deen (Way of Life), towards which all the messengers of Allâh subhaana wa ta’aala has been inviting and which is the only True Deen according to the Sunnah of Allâh subhaana wa ta’aala. Deviating from the straight path of this Deen --all other paths you have adopted, are wrong even according to your own books, which you take as the Revealed Books. Therefore, accept the Truth of whose trustfulness you yourself cannot deny.
The second group -- who now as being the best nation has been given the responsibility of reforming the world and as holder of Truth -- has been given additional guidance in the same reference that had started in the Sûrah Al-Baqarah, By showing the eye-opening signs of religious and moral degeneration of former nations -- they have been warned not to follow the path of those nations. They have been told how to work as a reforming group and how to deal with the people of the Book and the Muslims hypocrites -- who had been hindering through different ways in the Path of Allâh subhaana wa ta’aala. Their attention has also been drawn towards their own weaknesses -- which had come to the surface at the time of Battle of Uhud.
Background of Revelation:
The historical background of this Sûrah is:
1. In Sûrah Al-Baqarah, the people who brought Faith in the True Deen (Islam) had already been informed about all the trials and hardships – those had come in its fullest. In battle of Badr, however, the people with Faith had become victorious -- but this war was like throwing a stone in the beehives. This first armed encounter had surprised all those powers of Arabs who had enmity with this new movement. All around signs of storms were appearing -- Muslims were constantly under the state of fear and concern and it seemed that a tiny state of Al-Madinah, who has earned a war against entire world in its surroundings -- would be completely eradicated from the world. This situation was causing bad effect on the economical conditions of Al-Madinah. First of all, this small city comprising on a few hundred homes -- had been economically affected by sudden arrival of large number of Muslims immigrants. In addition, this war had added more difficulty on it.
2. The treaties Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had made with the surrounding Jewish tribes after the migration – those people did not keep it at all. At the time of battle of Badr the people of the Scripture had all their sympathies with idol worshipper instead of those Muslims who brought Faith in Oneness of Allâh subhaana wa ta’aala, Prophethood, and the Day of Judgment. After the battle of Badr, these people openly started provoking the Quraish and other Arab tribes to take revenge against Muslims. Especially Bani Nasser’s leader Kanab bin Asraf had reached to the point of disgrace in his efforts of blind enmity. Consequently, those Jewish tribes did not care about their centuries-old friendly and neighborly relations with the people of Al-Madinah. At last when their ill-behaved actions and breaches of treaties crossed all limits-- the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam attacked the Bani-Qainu-qa'a, the most wicked people from among these Jewish tribes, and kicked them out from the surroundings of Al-Madinah. However, it flamed the animosity of other Jewish tribes. They created many dangers against Muslim -- conspiring with the Muslims hypocrites of Al-Madinah and the idol worshipers Arab tribes -- even the Life of Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was always in danger of being attached. During this period, usually his companions used to sleep in their armors. Night guards were kept to watch against any sudden night raid. If Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam happened to be out of sight for a while the companions would at once set out in search of him.
3. After the defeat of Badr the Quraish
already had plans to take revenge --this inflammation by the Jews added fuel to
the fire. Consequently, after a year a
strong army of 3,000 marched out of Makkah to attack Al-Madinah and battle took
place at the foot of
4. The setback Muslims had in Battle of Uhud
– in that though there was a great part of the hypocrites plans, but the
weaknesses of the Muslims themselves contributed no less to it -- and it was
natural that a newly established Muslims party formed on new ideology and had
not yet got thorough moral training should show signs of moral weakness. Though it was the second time to defend their
ideology, therefore some weaknesses came to the surface. That is why it was required to have a
detailed post battle review of the Battle of Uhud, and according to Islamic
view point whatever shortcomings were founds in Muslims should be pointed out
and guidance should be given for their reform.
Here, it is worth noticing that the analysis of Al-Qur'ân